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Fries World
Laurent Fries after Martin Waldseemuller. "Orbis Typus Universalis Iuxta Hydrographorum Traditionem Exactissime Depicta. 1522. L.F." Vienne, [1522]-1541. With a line of offset type along the top, "Tabula orbis cum descriptione ventorum." Woodblock. 11 1/4 x 17 1/4 (neat lines) plus decorative borders and margins. Two sets of contiguous small wormholes at bottom enter well away from image. Very good condition. Ref.: Shirley, 48. Nordenskiold, Facsimile Atlas, XXXIX.

A fine example of the first generally obtainable world map to include the name "America." Many of the maps in Fries' atlas were reduced versions of maps by Martin Waldseemuller in 1513, but this map is based on different sources, as indicated by the initials "L.F." at the end of the title. In this map, Fries continues to show the New World as America, even though in the same atlas he issued a copy of Waldseemuller's map of the region in which he protested that that name should not be applied. Fries was trying to show the most up-to-date information he could, but he made a number of mistakes which he could have avoided. For instance, he shows England and Scotland as separate islands and confuses the Indian subcontinent as two peninsulas instead of home. Fries shows the South American continent with some correctness and also a couple islands in the West Indies, though he did not have the benefit of the information brought back upon the return of Magellan's expedition after this map was first issued. It is interesting to see the contrast of this map to the "Admiral's Map" which appeared in the same atlas. Decoratively, the map is very attractive with copious rhumb lines and a decorative rope border that is intertwined with labels giving the names of the various winds. The same woodblock was used in Strassburg in 1522 and 1525, in Lyons in 1535, and this printing in 1541. Prior to the last printing a crack developed in the wood block that is evident in the central part of south Asia. $9,500

Munster Ptolemaic World
Sebastian Munster after Ptolemy. "Altera Generalis Tab. Secundum Ptol." From Cosmographia. Basle, [1540]-1548. 10 x 13 1/2. Woodcut. A few scattered worm holes, spot at center fold. Very good condition. Shirley: 76.

A Ptolemaic world map by German cartographer Sebastian Munster. In the Second Century A.D. Ptolemy was the librarian at Alexandria, the greatest center of learning in the ancient world. He wrote two major works, one of which, the Geographia, was the first world atlas. It consisted of Ptolemy's compilation of all known geographic information, including instructions for how to make maps. Rediscovered in the middle ages, Ptolemy's Geography had a huge impact on man's understanding of the world. Such was this influence that even in the sixteenth century, when Ptolemy's geographic conceptions were known to be wrong, maps based on his depictions were issued time and again. It even became the standard practice to issue a double set of maps of each area depicted, one according to the Ptolemaic picture and one showing the modern picture. This is one of the two world maps first issued by Munster in 1540, and its depiction of Ptolemy's world is fascinating. The then known world, the oikoumene, extends from the Pillars of Hercules to just beyond "India extra Gangen," which probably represented the Indochina peninsula. Africa is depicted as reaching down just to the equator, and then running east until it meets with Asia, creating a land-locked Indian Ocean. The decorative features of this charming woodcut are delightful. The world is surrounded by the twelve ancient winds, and the crude rivers and mole-hill mountains mark this as a sixteenth century publication. This fascinating map gives us a privileged peek at the "classical" understanding of the world. $1,600

Munster Modern World
Sebastian Munster. "Typus Orbis Universalis." From Cosmographia. Basle: H. Petri, 1550. 10 1/4 x 15. Woodcut by David Kandel. Very narrow margin at right,, as issued. A few scattered worm holes. Very good condition. Shirley: 92.

The sixteenth century was a time of phenomenally rapid expansion of European man's knowledge of the earth, in the New World, Africa and Asia. Munster's world map was issued in 1540 and this is an example of the second version which appeared first in 1550, identifiable by the inclusion of the engraver's (David Kandel) initials in the lower left. This is very similar to the first version, though the east and west winds do not protrude into the map image as on the earlier map. Munster's map is a wonderful statement of the state of cartographic knowledge in the middle of the sixteenth century. The contrast between this map and the Ptolemaic world map issued by Munster at the same time is profound. The most obvious difference if the inclusion of the New World, complete with the False Sea of Verrazano which gave expression to the desire for a westward route to the Orient. All across the map are reflections of the recent voyages of discovery. Africa, while retaining Ptolemy's depiction of the source of the Nile in the Mountains of the Moon, is shown with an approximately accurate shape, the land bridge to Asia having disappeared. The outline of Asia is also much improved, with India and Ceylon taking on more of their true proportions, and there being some indication of the many islands off southeast Asia. Though with one face turned towards the future, this map also faces the past, with its fantastic border showing the twelve winds, and numerous sea-monsters frolicking in the seas. A wonderful Renaissance artifact conveyed through a Medieval medium. $3,400

1597 World
Girolamo Porro after Abraham Ortelius. "Universi Orbis Descriptio." From Giovanni Magini's Geographiae Universaetum Tum Veteris Tum Novae. Cologne: Peter Keschedt, 1597. 5 1/8 x 6 5/8. Engraving. Very good condition. Shirley: 203.

Girolamo Porro took Ortelius' popular oval projection and reduced it to octavo size for Magini's geography. There is some loss of detail, but the information is very clearly presented. The world is surrounded by six winds, and the geography of the map is quite up-to-date. The great, hypothetical southern continent is shown along the bottom of the map, and the equally mythical islands around the north pole are also indicated. Porro shows a northwest and a northeast passage, both ending in a 'strait of Anian' separating North America from Asia. A delightful example of the current understanding of the world at the end of the sixteenth century. Two misspellings on this map differentiate it from the 1596 Venice edition. In the upper left top and bottoms of the map area is "Terra Icognita" instead of "Incognita" and "Circulus Anterticus" instead of "Antarcticus" as in the earlier version. The probability is that this represents a newly engraved plate. $575

Ortelius World
Abraham Ortelius. "Typus Orbis Terrarum." From Theatrum Orbis Terrarum. Antwerp: 1608. Plate 3, state 1. 14 x 19. Engraving. Full hand color. 5" repaired tear in lower right and other minor wear in margins; some separation at centerfold. Appearance and overall condition is very good. Italian text on verso. Beautifully framed to museum standards. Shirley: 158.

One of the most famous of world maps, from Ortelius' great work, Theatrum Orbis Terrarum. Initially published in 1570, this volume was the first that could truly be called an "atlas" in the modern sense of a compilation of maps engraved to a uniform format according to the most up-to-date information available. The publication of the Theatrum also marked the inauguration of the era of Dutch supremacy in cartography. For these and other reasons, Ortelius is called the "father of modern cartography." This map, "Typus Orbis Terrarum," is based upon Gerard Mercator's large world map of 1569. Ortelius' atlas project had the blessing and aid of Mercator, who supplied Ortelius with coordinates of places in America. In the north, islands are shown surrounding the North Pole, and separated from America and Asia by a sea passage, the latter a popular belief in the sixteenth century. In the south, a large "Terra Australis Nondum Cognita" is drawn, separated from South America by the "Estrecho di Magallanes."

In 1587 Ortelius updated this seminal map for the third and last time. South America now assumes a more accurate shape, and the Solomon Isles are marked for the first time. The updated map is also distinctive and especially beautiful for the four medallions in the corners with classical texts, two from Cicero and two from Seneca. The border of this map is as well altered, now with a more intricate and elegant lattice of strapwork and swag. Altogether with the embellishments, rich original color and important information, one of the great world maps of all time. $9,500

Abraham Ortelius. "Typus Orbis Terrarum." From Theatrum Orbis Terrarum. Antwerp: [1589]. Plate 3, state 1. 14 x 19. Engraving. Tiny hole in decorative border and trimmed to neatline around. Very good condition. Latin text on verso. Shirley: 158.

Another example of Ortelius' world map, this one uncolored. $7,800

Mercator World
Gerhard and Rumold Mercator. "Orbis Terrae Compendiosa Descriptio." From the Mercator-Hondius Atlas. Amsterdam: Jodocus Hondius, [1613-1630]. 11 1/4 x 20 3/8. Engraving. Latin text on verso. Full hand color. Full margins. Very good condition. Shirley: 157; Van der Krogt: Vol. 1, p. 565: World 1:104; 1:105; 1:107. Denver.

Gerard Mercator (1512-1594) ranks as one of the greatest cartographers in history, not only for the extremely fine maps he produced, but also for the innovations which he introduced into cartographic science. Through his constant accumulation of new geographic and cosmological data, Mercator was able to produce the most accurate and current maps of his day, which unlike most of his contemporaries' maps, were mostly original work. In 1569 Mercator issued his famous map of the world with his new projection, a map that is one of the most important in history. As his great atlas neared completion, Mercator gave the job of drawing the maps of the continents and of the world, based upon his earlier maps, to his son and grandsons. His son, Rumold, was given the world map to complete. This map is the most beautiful of all the Renaissance maps which are decorated in the Mannerist style. The superb fretwork around the hemispheres and the intricacy of the orrery and the compass rose in the middle are indicative of the serious nature of this map which served as a frontispiece and index of the entire body of Mercator's work. A great item of Renaissance art and history. $7,800

Visscher World
J. Visscher. "Orbis Terrarum Nova Et Accuratissima Tabula." Amsterdam: N.J. Visscher, 1658. 18 1/4 x 21 7/8. Design of border decorations by N.P. Berchem. Engraving by J. de Visscher. Full, original hand-color. Some staining and wear in margins. Else, very good condition. Shirley, 406. Denver.

A fine example of Visscher's double hemisphere world map, a decorative masterpiece with attractive original color. The map is noteworthy for the beautiful border decorations designed by Nicolaes Berchem. The four corners of the map are used to illustrate the four basic elements with dramatic classical scenes: fire represented by the rape of Persephone, wind by Zeus carried across the skies in a carriage drawn by eagles, water by Poseidon with his entourage, and earth by Demeter receiving the fruits of the Earth. So popular was this basic design that Visscher had many imitators, making this map a prototype for Dutch world maps for the remainder of the seventeenth century.

The map is also of interest for its geographical content. In the western hemisphere, California is shown as an island, and there is an unusual representation of 'Anian' as a possible island to the north. The Great Lakes are represented by one single lake open ended to the west, and the Mississippi has not yet really made an appearance. In the eastern hemisphere, stippling is used for the first time on a printed map to indicate a desert, just to the west of the Great Wall of China. At top and bottom between the hemispheres are polar projections, the southern of which shows only the tip of South America. Distinctive, aesthetically superb, and a world map prototype, this world map is most desirable. $7,800

Hondius World map
Henricus Hondius. "Nova Totius Terrarum Orbis Gerographica Ac Hydrographica Tabula." Amsterdam: H. Hondius, 1663. Third state. 14 7/8 x 21 1/2. Engraving. Attractive hand coloring. Full margins. Very good condition. Shirley: 336. Framed. Denver.

A brilliantly ornate map of the world from the heyday of Dutch cartography, one of the most desirable of all antique maps. In 1630 the important Jansson-Hondius cartographic enterprise updated and reissued the famed Mercator-Hondius atlas. The world map, which had been left unchanged for thirty-five years, was revised with new geographical information, and also showered with artistic attention. New geographical detail includes part of the north Australia coastline extending towards New Guinea, one of the earliest depictions of the continent. Also shown is a redrawing of northeast Canada, though the old mythical island of Frisland continues to appear. Of particular interest is another geography myth, California shown as an island. In this third state the partially drawn Terra Australis Incognita, a purely hypothetical unknown southern continent, is somewhat erased, reflecting the continued absence of contact with this land by explorers in the southern latitudes.

The map is especially known for its pictorial richness, for it abounds with lavish representations of the four elements and other illustrative detail completely surrounding the two hemispheres. The four corners are taken up with cameo portraits of Julius Caesar, Claudius Ptolemy, Gerard Mercator and Jodocus Hondius. Lively and varied color accentuates the intricate imagery at all points. The Hondius-Jansson world map endured for some thirty-five years as a familiar cartographic document, and thus it stands today as a landmark in mapmaking, as well as a decorative tour de force. $11,500

Jaillot World
Alexis Hubert Jaillot. "Nova Orbis Tabula./Mappe Monde ou Description Du Globe Terrestre & Aquatique." Paris: A.H. Jaillot, 1694. 19 1/4 x 24. Engraving. Original outline color. A small spot at top border and 1" x 1 1/2" replaced section at top of western hemisphere (affecting only lines of latitude and longitude). Otherwise, excellent condition. Shirley: 561.

A rare and spectacular world map by Alexis Hubert Jaillot issued near the end of the seventeenth century. This large world map is quite scarce and is one of the most decorative of the later seventeenth century. Eight large and allegorical figures surround the two hemispheres. In the four corners are figures representing the continents: Europe shown as a Queen surrounded by symbols of power and learning; America as an Indian surrounded by a monkey and parrots, with many ships shown off the horizon; Aisa holding an incense burner sitting next to a camel, and Africa as a African maid sitting under an umbrella by a pyramid and surrounded by and crocodile, lion and elephant. In the center, two at top and two at the bottom, are four virtues. Overall, then, this is a wonderful and rare example of the combination of decoration and information for which world maps of the seventeenth century are famous. $9,250

Alexis Hubert Jaillot after Nicolas Sanson. "Mappe-Monde-Geo-Hydrographique, au Description Generale du Globe Terrestre et Aquatique en Deux Plans-Hemispheres..." Paris: A. H. Jaillot, 1696. 21 1/2 x 35 1/2 (neat lines) plus full and generous margins. Engraving with outline hand coloring to map and full color to decorative elements. Fine impression. Very good condition. Framed to archival specifications.

A striking 17th-century map that shows the development of early modern cartography. Jaillot, in re-engraving and publishing the then less widely known work of his compatriot, Nicolas Sanson, brought French cartography forward to compete with the hitherto unchallenged work of the Dutch. This beautiful world map illustrates the beginnings of the precise and scientific mapping associated with the French. The decorative flourishes remain strong, but they are confined to the elaborate Baroque cartouches.

North America does not yet have the Mississippi River and tributaries (thus missing information from LaSalle of 1682), and the five Great Lakes are present but incomplete. The only English colony named is Virginia with the rest designated as regions. The major accomplishment of this map is showing the full size of the world using an equal area projection. A fine accomplishment by this French mathematician. Altogether a map of aesthetic and historic importance. $3,800

Voyages of R Crusoe
After Herman Moll. "A Map of the World on wch. Is Delineated the Voyages of Robinson Cruso." London: 1719. Engraving. 7 x 11 7/8. Some very light off-set, but very good condition.

This small world map is an unusual and scarce piece which was printed for the second volume of the first edition of Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe. The depiction of the world follows Moll's, though this map was likely not drawn by Moll himself. It follows the commonly understood depiction of the world, including a nice example of California as an island. What is of particular interest is the connection with Robinson Crusoe. A dotted line traces the fictitious voyage based on Alexander Selkirk's experiences during Dampier's voyage and "R. Crusoes I" can seen off the north coast of South America. $925

Homann World
Johann Baptist Homann. "Planiglobii Terrestris Cum Utrog Hemispheirie Caelesti Generalis Exhibitio." Nuremberg: J.B. Homann, ca. 1730. 19 x 21 1/2. Engraving. Original hand color. Some wear along centerfold and some stains in margins. Otherwise, very good condition. Denver.

While the French and then the English generally dominated the cartographic world in the eighteenth century, the Homann firm from Nuremberg, Germany was producing many influential maps and atlases during this time. The firm was founded about 1702 by Johann Baptist Homann, who was appointed Geographer to the Emperor in 1715 and who produced this world map about 1730. The topographical information is copious and gives us a graphic picture of the state of geographic knowledge of the world in the first part of the eighteenth century. Of particular interest are the many cartographic myths featured. The most obvious is that California is depicted as an island, but other myths include the large "Terra Jesso" north of Japan, Frisland near Greenland, the River Longue and Lake Apalache in North America, and the Lakes of the Mountains of the Moon in Africa. Quite accurate and current information includes good depictions of those parts of Australia and New Zealand that were then known. It is, however, for the decorative aspects that this map is most popular. The wonderful border, showing in the corners the four elements and top and bottom the two celestial hemispheres, is both elaborately detailed and visually delightful, which gives the map a strong aesthetic impact. $2,400

Homann World
Johann Baptist Homann after Johann Gabriel Dopplemayr. "Basis Geographiae Recentioris Astronomica." Nuremberg: J.B. Homann, ca. 1730. Engraving. 19 x 22 1/2. Original hand color. Very good condition.

An attractive world maps drawn by Johann Gabriel Doppelmayr. Doppelmayr was a professor of mathematics in Nuremberg and he wrote on geography, astronomy, cartography, and other mathematical subjects. He was also a globe maker and was concerned with bringing scientific ideas to the growing educated public during the Enlightenment. Towards that end he collaborated with Nuremberg cartographer Johann Baptist Homann in producing a number of excellent celestial charts and diagrams. In 1702 Homann, who was appointed Geographer to the Emperor in 1715, founded a map and globe making business, which upon his death in 1724 passed on to his son, Johann Christoph Homann and then to his heirs, who traded under the name of Homann Heirs from 1730 into the nineteenth century. This firm came to dominate German cartography and the beautiful production of this world map graphically demonstrates the appeal of the firm's output. This map shows the world based on the latest astronomical observations by Dopplemayr. The focus is on the outline of the principal landmasses, including the then known parts of Australia. Of particular interest is the clear depiction of California shown as an island, a long-lasting cartographic myth which was fairly-well proven false by the time this map was issued. Along the bottom are vignette scenes of putti engages in the study of geography and astronomy. The basis of Dopplemayr's rendering was the longitudinal and latitudinal measurements of major cities around the world, and these are listed in tables at top and bottom. $1,800

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