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William E. Morris after John Melish. "Map of Pennsylvania, Constructed from the County Surveys authorized by the State; and other original Documents. Revised And Improved Under the supervision of Wm. E. Morris, Civil Engineer." Philadelphia: R.L. Barnes, [1848]-1849. Copyright, R.L. Barnes 1848. 50 x 74. Engraving by Edward Yeager. Original hand color. Conserved and mounted on new linen backing. Very good condition.

In 1816, the Pennsylvania State legislature passed a law to produce an official state map, and this project was given to the supervision of Philadelphia mapmaker John Melish. Melish called for each county to produce a standardized map, which he would then use to compile a full state map. He worked for six years on this map, which was finally produced in 1822, with revised editions issued in 1824, 1826, and 1832. As each of these maps was produced, one could see the internal growth and development of the state, with new roads and canals, settlements and other features making their appearance with each new issue. By the 1830s, however, it became clear that the tremendous growth of the state demanded an updated and revised version of this official state map. Civil Engineer William E. Morris was authorized to gather updated information from each county, and he proceeded to 'revise and improve' Melish's map, with the new engravings done by Philadelphia craftsman Edward Yeager. The map was copyrighted and first issued in 1848 and this example was issued a year later with some updating. The size of this map and its myriad public uses determined that the map would be issued in the format of a wall map. Its sheets were joined, mounted on canvas, and varnished so that it could be hung in public plates throughout the state. Added along the bottom of the map are several tables of information. These include: "Anthracite Coal Trade of Pennsylvania," "Public Works of Pennsylvania," "Approximate Estimate of Bituminous Coal Mined in 1847," and "Statistical Table Shewing The Prominent Features of each County." It map is a superb picture of Pennsylvania at mid-century and it is the last of the great engraved maps of the state. $6,500

Bushy Run
Thomas Hutchins. "Plan of the Battle near Bushy-Run, Gained by Colonel Bouquet, over the Delawares, Shawnese, Mingoes, Wyandoes, Mohikons, Miamies & Ottawas; on the 5th and 6th. of August 1763." Along with diagram of British line of march and dispositions during attack. From A General Topography of North America and the West Indies. London: R. Sayer & T. Jefferys, 1768. Two plans on folio sheet: map 8 7/8 x 6 1/4 (platemark); diagram 8 1/2 x 6 3/8. Engraving by Thomas Jefferys. Very good condition. Phillips: Maps of America, p. 182.

A very rare map and diagram of the Battle of Bushy Run from Jeffery's important General Topography. The Battle of Bushy Run was a very important event in the early development of the country, today unfortunately mostly forgotten. During the French and Indian War, the British had tried to win over from the French the tribes-Delaware, Shawnees and Iroquois-located in what is today western Pennsylvania and in the upper Ohio River basin. These tribes remained mostly neutral believing that this would lead to an end to British encroachments west of the Allegheny Mountains. This belief was shattered when, following the conclusion of the French and Indian War, European colonists began to move into western Pennsylvania and beyond in a steady stream, and the British continued construction of Fort Pitt, a large brick and stone fortification.

Meanwhile, Pontiac--an Ottawa war chief--was gaining a following in the mid-west for his campaign to drive the British out of the region. On May 8, 1763, Pontiac and his Ottawas lay siege to Fort Detroit, beginning what has been called Pontiac's Rebellion. Because of the British intrusions and broken promises, the tribes in eastern tribes decided to join the rebellion, destroying Forts LeBoeuf, Venango, and Presqu'Isle and attacking Fort Pitt in June 1763. Colonel Henry Bouquet was sent, with three regiments, to march west to relieve and resupply the hard-pressed defenders of Fort Pitt. After leaving Fort Ligonier, and about 25 miles east of Fort Pitt near Bushy Run, Bouquet was attacked on August 5 by a large force of Indians, who, once they learned of Bouquet's march, had left the siege of Fort Pitt to lay an ambush. Over the two days of the battle, about 50 British died and 60 were wounded, while the Indian force-described by Bouquet as numbering about 400 but by the Indians as about a quarter of that-lost between 30 and 50. The Indians were driven from the field and Bouquet marched on to rescue Fort Pitt. This battle off in the wilds of western Pennsylvania had an important impact on the course of American history, for it ended any hope the Indians in western Pennsylvania had of preserving their lands and opened up the entire region to more and more British settlement. This was, in effect, the beginning of the flood of colonists from their original settlements on the East Coast across the Allegheny Mountains and into the mid-west. $2,800


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