With the start of the Civil War, the military situation in the United States was, naturally, of great interest to the readers of Johnson's atlas, so the firm of Johnson & Ward added this "New Military Map." The focus is on the situation of all the U.S. forts and posts throughout the country, including those in the South. As an important element in the war was the access to maritime trade, with the Union blockade of Southern ports, the firm also put in nine inset maps of various southern harbors, running from Baltimore to New Orleans.
The political division of the United States is also of interest in this map. Up to 1860, the increased population of settlers in the trans-Mississippi west created considerable pressure to create new territories there, but the debate over whether these would be free or slave territories prevented Congress from acting. As soon as the Southern Congressmen left, when their states seceded, Northern Congressmen could pass what they wanted and three new territories were created in 1861. These new territories, Colorado, Nevada and Dakota, are all shown here. However, also shown is a territory not yet created and certainly not created as it is shown here, viz. Arizona.
The settlers in the southern part of New Mexico had been trying since the late 1850s to create a territory of Arizona out of the southern part of that territory, but the fact that this would be a southern leaning, slave territory prevented this from happening. When the Confederacy was created, those settlers decided they didn't want to wait, so they voted themselves as a Confederate Territory. The U.S. Congress did eventually, in 1863, create an Arizona Territory, but running north-south, to the west of New Mexico, so it would not be a "southern," slave territory. The Johnson & Ward firm believed that the Arizona Territory was going to be created as originally proposed, and so that is what they show here, making this map both erroneous and particularly interesting. $350
S.A. Mitchell Jr. "Mitchell's Military Map of the United States. With Separate Maps of States, Vicinities and Cities, &c." Philadelphia, S. Augustus Mitchell Jr., 1861. 27 x 29 (full sheet). Lithograph (hand colored). A separately issued map published for folding into a small case. Former folds are evident as tears are repaired, the map cleaned and flattened. One small loss in the Census of 1860. Else fine but also very fragile. Backed and wrapped and not laid down. A splendid piece of history. Ref.: Phillips, Maps, p. 909.
The map illustrates the situation of the United States in the year of the fall of Fort Sumter in Charleston, S.C. Harbor and the first great battle at Bull Run, Virginia. Among many large and small maps the top one and largest defines the states and territories coast to coast. Smaller detailed sectional maps focus on actual and anticipated areas of vital conflict. The two largest are "Virginia and North Carolina" and "Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Maryland and Delaware." Eight smaller detailed maps illustrate New Orleans, Richmond, Baltimore, Hampton Roads, Washington, Baltimore City, Pensacola and Charleston. The maps illustrate roads, boundaries and rivers without recognizing the existence of the Confederacy.
Features seldom found on maps of this scale are statistics from the census of 1850 and 1860 showing numbers of free and slave persons in sixteen states. Without preaching, this map dramatizes the increase in slavery in the country during the decade before the war. Almost all the slave states saw sharp increases in the number of slaves. At a time when politicians were emphasizing preservation of the Union, this form of information advanced also the cause of emancipation. $1,800
"Johnson's New Chart of National Emblems." [Flags of the World]. Stone lithography (hand colored). New York: Johnson & Ward, 1863. 16 7/8 x 23 1/8. Center fold as issued. Slight browning. A few chips around the edges, else fine and bright.
Alvin J. Johnson began publishing his New Illustrated Family Atlas in 1860 and continued to publish it through the Civil War years and through to 1885. Many issues contained a double page such as this one illustrating flags of the world. The 1863 issue was one of the few which illustrated the flag of the Confederate States of America [top of bottom right quadrant] at a time when the Northern States did not recognize the Southern confederacy. Indeed, publishing sympathetic writings or pictures could be treasonous, thus a warning that this government was "so called"; is added to the description. Perhaps this phrase saved the publisher from a charge of sedition, but it also showed how Confederate warships and especially raiders were on the minds of the Northern public. The other flags reflect developments in various parts of the World. $225
Each of these large maps provides excellent detail of the topography, transportation routes, troop positioning and town names of the region that served as the theatre for the dramatic events of the Atlanta campaign. Importantly, the maps provide an illustration of these central components of Confederate infrastructure which were the primary motivation to take Atlanta for the Union leadership. The extended strategic movements of the Federal and Confederate forces, beginning in May of 1864 and ending with the occupation of Atlanta in September of that year, are clearly marked throughout the maps. These maps, produced from the official government documents, are important historic artifacts of this decisive period in the Civil War.
Plate 68. "Defensive lines 18th Army Corps from Fort Brady to Fort Burnham, October, 1864 / Defensive lines 10th Army Corps from Fort Burnham to right of New Market Road, October, 1864 / Battle-Field of Five Forks, Va., Saturday, April 1st, 1865 / Casement in Fort Burnham, January, 1865 plus 5 smaller maps.." Maps from the U.S. War Department's Atlas to Accompany the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies. Washington: Gov't. Printing Office, 1891-95. Lithographed map, with some highlight color. Double folio size. Very good condition.
Richard Stephenson has written, "This is the most detailed atlas yet published on the Civil War. It consists of reproductions of maps compiled by both Union and Confederate soldiers." [Stephenson, Civil War Maps, p 99.] The maps show many of the events of the Civil War with great detail, including topography, troop placements and movements, and other information of interest. These are the best near contemporary maps available of many of these battles, sieges, and other events of this conflict. $75
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