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Antique Maps of North America
from the 18th Century

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Jaillot North America
Alexis Hubert Jaillot after Nicholas Sanson "Amerique Septentrionale." Paris: A. H. Jaillot, 1694-[1719]. 18 x 25 1/4. Engraving by Cordier. Original outline hand color. Good margins. Strong impression. Stamped "116" in upper left corner. Ref.: McLaughlin, 55, iii.

Jaillot, in re-engraving and publishing the then less widely known work of his compatriot Nicolas Sanson, brought French cartography forward to compete with the hitherto unchallenged work of the Dutch. Sanson's design, which this map is based on, was the first to show all five Great Lakes, and this reflects Sanson's concern to obtain as current information as was available. This map closes the western shores of the Great Lakes. Still, many geographic misconceptions were prevalent at the time, and these are well illustrated here. Most noticeable is the depiction of California as an island, though the north coast of Baha Bay is almost closed and the northern Pacific coast abruptly ends. This configuration shows that the island theory is coming into doubt in Europe. The legendary cities of Cibola and Quivira are still depicted in the interior of the continent. To the north central part of the continent the map gives a strong hint at the existence of a northwest passage out of Hudson's Bay. The depiction of the Mississippi River shows that information used by Delisle in his 1718 map of the continent had not reached the mapmaker. With its attractive cartouches, and curious mixture of accurate and illusionary geography, this is much a map of its time. $2,600



Moll: Cod Fish Map
Herman Moll. "To the Right Honourable John Lord Sommers...This Map of North America according to ye Newest and most Exact observations." London: H. Moll, ca. 1715. 22 3/4 x 38. Engraving. Outline color. Full margins. Very good condition. Denver.

One of Moll's impressive, very large maps issued at the beginning of the eighteenth century. This map shows North America as it was known at the time. Detail of rivers, lakes, cities, and so forth is excellent. The map is quite accurate in parts, but it is for its myriad geographic myths that the map is most interesting. To the north, Moll is quite conservative in showing the long-sought-for Northwest Passage, indicating that Hudson's Bay did not have an opening to the west and only showing the entrance of the postulated Straits of Anian. Moll is not so accurate in the middle part of the continent, where he shows Baron Lahontan's mythical geography of the Long River and the lake and river of the Mozeemleck Indians. Even more prominently Moll shows California as an island, a cartographic error that lasted over 100 years. These geographic features are nicely complimented by the large, decorative cartouches that appear above the ten inset detail maps. The title cartouche is elaborately drawn showing native Indians including an Eskimo family. Below this is an engraved view of a Cod production plant on Newfoundland. An historically and decoratively wonderful map by one of the leading cartographers of his day. $4,200



Delisle: North America
Guillaume Delisle. "Carte du Mexique et de la Florida des Terres Angloises..." Amsterdam: Covens & Mortier, 1722. 18 1/4 x 23 1/2. Engraving. Full hand color. Very good condition. References: Lowery: 313; J.& R. Martin, p.92; Tooley Amer, p. 23, #51; Karpinski, Michigan, LI; Boston Public Library, Leventhal Map Center.

An early Dutch edition of one of the most significant maps by Guillaume Delisle (1675-1726), the leading French cartographer of the eighteenth century and one of the greatest of all time. He is known as the "father of scientific cartography" for his production of maps based upon scientific principles and his role in establishing this as the standard for all cartographers. According to Tooley, "his work was highly rated, not only by his own countrymen, but by the world at large." (Maps and Mapmakers, 43), and he was certainly "the most prominent figure at the beginning of the century." (Ibid.)

With this particular map (appearing initially in 1703), Delisle offered the first relatively accurate charting of the Mississippi Valley, and thus seriously influenced the mapping of the area for over a century to come. His delineation was based on thorough research, taking advantage of information gleaned from the survivors of the La Salle expedition down the Mississippi, as well as from other important reports and explorations. For example, his use of the works of Franquelin, Joliet, and others contributed much to his vastly improved depiction of the Great Lakes. Another of the many important cartographic facts here is his depiction of California as a peninsula. Delisle was one of the first cartographers to correct the misconception of California as an island, his information based on the discoveries of Father Kino in 1698.

Delisle's precise drawing and presentation is further enhanced by the lovely title cartouche in the lower left corner. The face of a deity presides over a ring of symbols of war and abundance. Two idealized native figures flank the title, making symbolic reference to this new untouched country. Another, smaller cartouche in the upper left encases the scales of distance in French, Spanish, and English, an acknowledgment of the three major powers in the delineated area. Altogether a very handsome map and one that is a key document in the history of the mapping of America. $2,400



La Louisiane
Guillaume Delisle. "Carte de la Louisiane et du Cours du Mississipi." From Jean Frederic Bernard's Recueil de Voiages au Nord. Amsterdam: J.F. Bernard, 1734. Engraving. 13 7/8 x 15 3/4. Very good condition. Denver.

A slightly reduced version of Guillaume Delisle's seminal map of North America from the first part of the eighteenth century. Delisle is known as the "father of scientific cartography" for his production of maps based upon scientific principles and his role in establishing this as the standard for all cartographers. Delisle's maps had an immense impact on the history of cartography, and none more so than this map which was first issued in 1718. It is seminal in the history of the mapping of America exactly because of Delisle's pioneering method and attitude. It was based on years of research, using all the latest reports of travels, explorations and surveys in the region. Delisle was particularly well placed with respect to gathering information on North America, for with his connections in the French court, especially within the Ministry of Marine, he had access to all the official and unofficial reports coming out of New France. It is not surprising, then, given Delisle's method and connections, that this map is so important in the cartographic history of the continent.

This map is Delisle's final statement on the mapping of America and one of the most influential American maps ever produced. It is a map of superior delineations and many firsts. It contains the first indications of the explorations of De Soto, Cavelier, Tonty, Moscoso and Denis. It includes the best depiction of the Mississippi River of the first part of the eighteenth century, as Delisle for the first time presented a roughly accurate delineation of its entire length as well as a semblance of accuracy about many of the tributaries such as the Ohio, the Missouri, the Platt, and the Arkansas. It is on Delisle's map that the name Texas first appeared in print, with the legend "Mission de los Teijas," indicating a mission established in 1716. This version, from Bernard's Voiages, is slightly reduced but otherwise a duplicate of the first edition It is a nice example of one of the great maps of North America; both an historic glimpse at and a significant part of our continent's history. $2,400



Tobias Conrad Lotter after Guillaume Delisle. "America Septentrionalis." Augsburg: M.A. Lotter, ca. 1750.17 7/8 x 22. Engraving. Original hand color. Trimmed within neat lines. Else, very good condition.

A decorative German map showing North America in the middle of the eighteenth century. The map was published by Tobias Conrad Lotter, one of the leading German cartographers of the mid-eighteenth century. His maps are noted for their bold and colorful appearance, and this map is no exception. The map is based on a map by Guillaume Delisle, the "father of scientific cartography," who was the greatest cartographer at the beginning of the century. The entire continent is depicted, though no information is given in the northwest part. This is because Delisle mapped only places for which he had accurate, first-hand information, and none was available of this region. Topographical detail includes rivers, lakes and towns, with some indication of orography. Politically the map is of considerable interest. The British colonies are shown extending to the Mississippi River, and the name "Georgia" actually extends well west of the river. Though Delisle was very concerned about showing only accurate information, the mythical "Quivira" is shown in the great plains and Delisle doesn't make a commitment one way or the other concerning the issue of California as being an island or a peninsula. Lotter has added his own aesthetic finish to the Delisle cartographic information with a decorative title cartouche. This and the bright, original hand color make this map as decorative as it is historic. $850



John Mitchell. "Amerique Septentrionale avec les Routes, Distances en miles, Villages et Etablissements Francois et Anglois." Paris: G.L. Le Rouge, 1756. Engravings. Eight sheets, each ca. 26 x 18 3/4. Original outline hand color. Full margins. Very good condition. Stephenson: second French edition, first impression. Denver.

An early French edition of the historically most significant map of North America, issued just a year after the first British edition. John Mitchell was commissioned by the Earl of Halifax, the president of the Board of Trade and Plantations, to produce a map defining British claims in North America. The resulting document was very much a propaganda statement, arguing for British control of most of the continent. Mitchell shows British claims to their most extreme extent, foreshadowing the future, for just seven years later the French were defeated and the British gained control of the entire eastern half of North America.

Cartographically the map is excellent, for Mitchell gathered as current and precise information as was available to him. He had access to much manuscript and documentary information, all of which he carefully laid down on this huge, detailed map. With its precise cartography and impressive size, this map had an immediate and significant impact when issued. It was universally accepted as the best depiction of North America from its first appearance right through to the end of the century, and from this comes its historic importance. It was used as the primary political document of America, called upon whenever a border dispute came up. When the negotiations to end the Revolution were concluded in Paris in 1783, it was Mitchell's map upon which the border between Canada and the United States was described, and it was used subsequently in numerous border disputes right into the early twentieth century. This map became in effect the 'official' map of North America during the last half of the eighteenth century and even into the nineteenth, as evidenced by the fact that the map hung in Congress in 1802.

This French edition was published by G.L. Le Rouge just a year after the first edition of 1755. This testifies to the impact of this map, for not only was this very quick to issue an accurate re-engraving of such a large map, but it is interesting that the French would publish a map which had such a British bias. Scarce and impressive, this is an historic document of great importance. $24,000



Pownall North America
Thomas Pownall after Emanuel Bowen. "A New Map of North America, with the West India Islands." London: Laurie & Whittle, 1794. Four sheets joined, 39 1/2 x 45 3/4. Outline color on map; full color on cartouches. Very good condition. With an inset of the Gulf of California and an inset of Hudson's and Baffin's Bays. Stevens & Tree: 49k. Framed to museum standards. Denver.

A dramatic, large map of the North American continent from northern Canada down to the northern part of South America, and including the West Indies. This is a modified version of Emanuel Bowen's 1755 map of North America, updated by Governor Thomas Pownall, one of America's important early cartographers as well one time Lieutenant Governor of New Jersey and Governor of Massachusetts. The map was originally issued to show the results of the first Treaty of Paris, which ended the French & Indian War and gave most of North America to the British. With the renewed interest in the region resulting in the second Treaty of Paris, which ended the American Revolution, this modified edition was issued in 1794. It focuses on the United States, the British lands in Canada, and the colonies of Florida, Louisiana and New Mexico. The map includes text from the second treaty in the top right corner, just above the cartouche.

The map shows the lands of the American colonies, bordered on the south by Spanish Florida, on the north by British Canada and to the west by French Louisiana. Bowen worked with much of the best cartographic information available in 1755 to compile the first edition of the map. Likewise, Pownall did the same for his update, using many of the seminal American maps of the three preceding decades, including his important reissue of Lewis Evans map of the Middle Colonies with his own addendum showing New England. The detail depicted is impressive, including rivers, lakes, towns, Indian settlements, mountains, roads, and many other such features. The title cartouche is very large and elaborately etched in the baroque style, showing Indians and other symbols of the Americas. This is a marvelous historic document from just after the Revolution, one filled with interesting topographical and political information. $4,950



Reid: North America
John Reid. "A General Map of North America drawn from the best surveys 1795." From American Atlas. New York: John Reid, 1796. State 2. Engraving by [John] Scoles. 14 1/4 x 18. Light outline color. Very good condition. Wheat & Brun: 57. Denver.

This fascinating map of North America on an equal-area projection depicts from the Bering Straits and Baffin's Bay in the north to present-day Honduras and the entire West Indies in the south. The United States is shown containing fifteen states with a dotted line paralleling the Mississippi River denoting the western boundaries. Very little information is given to the vast area that would soon be the Louisiana Purchase, while the Spanish possessions labeled "New Mexico" and "New Spain" are well documented. The border between Canada and New England is vague. The map was prepared originally for John Reid's American Atlas which accompanied William Winterbotham's History of America. $750



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