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Antique Maps of North America to 1700


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Ortelius regions of the New World
Abraham Ortelius. "La Florida. Auctore Hieron. Chiaves."/ "Peruviae Aurieferae Regionis Typus. Didaco Mendezio Auctore."/ "Guastecan Reg." From Theatrum Orbis Terrarum. Antwerp, [1584]. 6 x 8 3/4; 13 x 8 3/4; 6 3/4 x 8 3/4, respectively. Overall 13 x 18. Engraving. Original hand color. Very good condition. French text on verso.

A three-part map of the New World by Abraham Ortelius, the 'father of modern cartography.' Of particular importance is the first printed map of the American southeast, the fascinating "La Florida," as the southeast was called at the time, stretching along the Atlantic from the Carolinas to the Mexican coast. This map is based on actual information gathered during De Soto's explorations of the area in the early 1540s, and it presents the first printed image of the interior of the American southeast, showing Indian settlements, mountains and waterways discovered by De Soto. The other two maps on the sheet are of present-day Peru (the source of gold and silver for the Spanish) and eastern Mexico. Together, the three maps describe in wonderful detail and decorative form the most significant parts of the New World in the second half of the sixteenth century. They show the source of Spanish gold in three juxtaposed panels that are fit together to convey maximum cartographic information. The maps are the unmistakable work of Abraham Ortelius, considered to be one of the two greatest cartographers of the sixteenth century, and whose Theatrum Orbis Terrarum was the first modern atlas. This printing first appeared in the third supplement to the atlas, the 1584 Additamentum. Containing the earliest printed map of the southeast and with two other maps of regions of central importance to early American history, this is a map of highest interest to the American collector. $2,850



Virginia et Florida
Jodocus Hondius. "Virginiae Item et Floridae Americae Provinciarum, nova Descriptio." Amsterdam: J. Hondius, [1606]-1636. 13 1/2 x 19. Engraving. Full hand color. Very good condition. German text on verso.

An important "mother map" of early American cartography. Showing the southeastern region of the present-day U.S., this was the prototype map of the area for over fifty years, and had an impact on the cartography of the region until the middle of the eighteenth century. In this map, Hondius combined the information from two important source maps, one of "Florida" by Jacques le Moyne in 1591, and one of old "Virginia" by John White in 1590. The Le Moyne map was drawn by one of the few survivors of the aborted French attempt at settlement in Florida in 1564, and the White map was drawn by the Governor of the group that tried to establish a colony on Roanoke. Thus the information exhibited in Hondius' map, first issued in 1606, closely reflects first-hand data from the earliest attempts at settlement in the region, and for this alone it would be of great significance. Interestingly, because of Hondius' position as one of the leading publisher-cartographers of the day, it was his compiled map, rather than the source maps by White and Le Moyne, that was copied by other cartographers for most of the rest of the century.

Hondius combined the information from the two source maps as best he could, following White's coastal outline in the north including his first depiction of the Chesapeake Bay, and showing Le Moyne's "Apalatchy" mountain range, which, he noted, was gold bearing and contained a large waterfall. In his compilation, Hondius introduced some mistakes of his own, errors that would have a great influence on subsequent maps. First, he put the two maps together too closely, leaving out a large stretch of coastline between the Outer Banks and Florida. Also, Hondius straightened the bend of the River May from Le Moyne's map, thus putting its source lake, probably Lake George in Florida, into interior Georgia in the middle of the 'Apalatchy' Mountains. This erroneously placed lake, later named "Apalache," continued to appear in that area on maps into the eighteenth century. Besides its fascinating topographical features, the map abounds with decorative flourishes that make it one of the most attractive early American maps. Vignettes taken from De Bry's works show two Indians in full native dress, a dugout canoe off the coast, and two Indian villages, one from the Florida region and one from the Carolina region. The village vignettes appear as part of a lovely title cartouche in the upper left using motifs based on the strapwork style of the Dutch leatherworkers, and balanced by a smaller cartouche of the same style in the lower right. The decorative aspects are wonderfully finished off by depictions of a turkey and two deer on land, and sea monsters and sailing vessels at sea. Historically of seminal impact and aesthetically unsurpassed, this is an excellent early American map. $4,200



Speed America
John Speed. "America with those parts in that unknowne worlde both people and manner of buildings Discribed and inlarged by J.S. Ano. 1626." From A Prospect of the Most Famous Parts of the World. London: George Humble, [1626]-1627. First state. 15 1/2 x 20 1/5. Engraving by Abraham Goos. With a few light stains. Otherwise, very good condition. English text on verso. Burden: 217 (1).

The rare first state of one of the most decorative and interesting maps of North and South America from the seventeenth century. It was produced by the English cartographer John Speed (1552-1629). Speed is well known for his county maps of Great Britain, but in his Prospect of the World he issued fine maps of other parts of the globe, many of which were decorated with illustrations of native costumes and principal cities of the areas shown. This map of the western hemisphere is the most famous of this type, with views of eight cities in the Americas, as well as ten depictions of natives from the various regions, including the northern, middle and southern parts of the eastern coast of North America.

These superb decorative and historical vignettes provide a perfect frame for Speed's interesting cartographic rendering of the Americas. Considerable detail is shown in South and Central America and the eastern parts of North America, including indications of the Chesapeake, Delaware and Hudson Bays. It is for its depiction of California as an island, however, that this map is particularly famous, for this is the first atlas map upon which this misconception appeared and Speed's depiction of the island was thus a major contributing factor in the longevity of this notorious myth. The final flourishes of the map are the myriad small etched ships, sea monsters and flying fish shown in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Speed's maps were issued uncolored, though most of subsequently been colored by dealers or collectors. This is a rare example of the map as issued, and it is a classic combination of best decorative and historic aspects of antique maps. $8,500



Jansson South East

Jan Jansson. "Virginiae partis australis, et Floridae partis orientalis." Amsterdam: J. Jansson, 1639. 15 x 19 3/4. Engraving. Original hand color. Very good condition. French text on verso.

A beautiful map that is one of the most interesting maps of the American southeast. The map is based upon the Jodocus Hondius' map of the same area-Jansson was Hondius' son-in-law-with some updating. This shows the influence of the Hondius map, and the way his map led to an extensive dissemination of both its correct information and its errors. Hondius's map was a combination of information from two sixteenth century maps, one of the Carolinas, and one of the northern Florida/Georgia region. These were combined, and in the process many errors were introduced, not the least of which was the straightening out of the St. John's River so that it flowed from an non-existent lake located to the northwest of the mouth of the river. This lake, which would become Lake Apalachy, appeared on this and other maps well into the eighteenth century. Jansson's map is updated from the Hondius version, including coats-of-arms to indicate the spheres of influence claimed by the French in the Georgia region and the British in the Carolinas. Jansson follows Hondius in the south, but he more accurately depicts the coast in the Carolinas, based on Hessel Gerritsz's map of 1631, and has a more correct image of the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay, indicating for the first time "Newport nesa [i.e. News]." This map shines not only in its interesting cartographic history, but also in its decorative appeal. It is a particularly fine example of the aesthetics of 17th-century Dutch cartography. The elegant calligraphy and compass roses combine with the ships in the sea and the rhumb lines in wonderful embellishment. The fully colored title and scale cartouches, the latter which shows naked putti and the former half-naked natives, add a final flourish that makes the map a delight to look at. All in all an historic map that is a very fine decorative example of the great age of Dutch cartography. $2,400



Sanson North America
Nicolas Sanson. "Amerique Septentrionale." Paris: Mariette, [1650]-1659. Third state. 15 1/2 x 22. Engraving. Original hand color. Mark extending into image in top center and a few minor marginal blemishes. Else, very good condition. Burden #294, state 3. Denver.

This is one of the most significant maps of North America, and the first map to show all five Great Lakes. Nicolas Sanson, known as the 'father of French cartography,' is one of the great figures in the history of cartography. Beginning his mapmaking career at the age of 18, Sanson went on to be appointed the first geographer-royal to Louis XIII of France (1640). Due to his royal position Sanson had access to the official French records of the explorations in the New World and used this information to establish himself at the forefront of the mapping of the Americas. Following the expeditions of Champlain in the 1620s, a new picture came to Europe of the interior of North America. Sanson was the first to compile this information, from Champlain and the Jesuits that followed him, into an depiction that included all five Great Lakes.

This is the map that first represented all of the lakes, and the first to name Lake Superior and Lake Ontario. The map shows the complete extent of the Jesuit exploration and mapping of the region. Besides its importance concerning the Great Lakes, this map is also significant for its depiction of the trans-Mississippi west, and its naming of the Indian tribes before the great dispersions of the 1640's and 1650's. Though erroneous, the maps graphically shows California as an island, one of the most famous myths about North America. This map established the predominant image of North America for the remainder of the 17th century. Its significance is reflected in that its original date of publication, 1650, is usually given as the date of the switch in cartographic dominance from The Netherlands to France. This is the third state of the map where Lake Ontario is now shaded like the other Great Lakes. $6,500



Jaillot America
Alexis Hubert Jaillot after Nicholas Sanson. "Amerique Septentrionale." Paris: A. H. Jaillot, 1692. 21 5/8 x 34 3/8. Engraving by Robert Cordier. Some light, original outline color. A few light spots/worn areas and some soft creasing along centerfold. Overall, very good condition and appearance. McLaughlin California As An Island, 55-1.

A striking 17th-century map that shows the development of early modern cartography. Jaillot, in re-engraving and publishing the then less widely known work of his compatriot Nicolas Sanson, brought French cartography forward to compete with the hitherto unchallenged work of the Dutch. This beautiful map of North America illustrates the beginnings of the precise and scientific mapping associated with the French. Sanson was the first to show all five Great Lakes, which reflects Sanson's concern to get as current information as was available, and his map of 1669, upon which this is based, was the best of North America of the time. Jaillot received permission to re-engrave Sanson's maps on a larger scale and this is the first edition of his effort, following Sanson closely.

Still, many geographic misconceptions were prevalent at the time, and these are well illustrated here. Most noticeable is the depiction of California as an island, but we can also find the legendary Cibola and Quivira depicted in the interior of the continent. A non-existent mountain range crosses the middle of the continent and the equally mythical Apalache Lake resides in the southeast. West of California is a large land of Jesso, and to the north Sanson gives a strong hint at the existence of a northwest passage out of Hudson's Bay, and he also shows the alleged Frobishers Strait running through the tip of Greenland. The decorative flourishes remain strong, but they are confined to the elaborate Baroque cartouches, gracing the left side of the map. With its attractive cartouches, and curious mixture of accurate and illusionary geography, this is much a map of its time. $2,800



Mortier America
Pierre Mortier. "Carte Nouvelle De L'Amerique Angloise Contenant La Virginie, Mary-Land, Caroline, Pensylvania Nouvelle Iorck, N: Iarsey N: France, et Les Terres Nouvellement Decouerte. Amsterdam: P. Mortier, 1698(?). 23 1/4 x 35 3/4. Engraving. Excellent, original hand color. Excellent condition.

A striking, large sized map of the eastern part of North America, allegedly derived by Mortier from the work of Nicolas Sanson, though there is no evidence other than the title attribution that this geographical conception was ever held by Sanson. This map is wonderful in its illustration of the various geographic misconceptions of the late seventeenth century. Interestingly, it is one of the few maps to show the Mississippi River entering the western end of the Gulf instead in the middle as it actually does. This feature appeared on maps for only about 30 years, the result of a hoax perpetrated by La Salle in an attempt to make a settlement at the mouth of the river look strategically important-in being near to the Spanish ports in Mexico-thus lending added weight to his plan of developing a French Empire along the great North American inland waterways. Also shown are 'Ashley Lake,' the 'Savana,' and the 'Desert Arenosa,' the three notorious errors derived from the reports of John Lederer.

There are myriad other interesting geographic oddities of the period which appear on the map, especially in the mid-west region. The Great Lakes are depicted essentially the same as on the map of 'the English Empire' by Robert Morden, 1695(?), and these two maps are the first to show one of the most mysterious geographic mistakes in the mapping of America, viz. the prominently illustrated mountain range running through the Michigan peninsula and down all the way into Florida. While the connection of the Michigan chain with Florida was soon severed, the mountains in the peninsula appeared on maps even into the nineteenth century. The origin of this chain is still a puzzle that continues to baffle cartographic scholars. All in all, a fascinating document showing the state of 'knowledge' of North America at the end of the seventeenth century. $4,800



Mortier America
Pierre Mortier. "Carte Nouvelle De L'Amerique Angloise..." Amsterdam: P. Mortier, 1698(?). 23 3/8 x 18 1/4. Line engraving. Hand color. Some soft creases. Top right corner of margin chipped off. Otherwise, very good condition.

A single sheet version of the Mortier map above, lacking the right sheet of eastern Canada. Shows most of what is today the eastern part of the United States. $2,850



Mortier Chesapeake Bay
A. H. Jaillot. "Carte Particulaire de Virginie, Maryland, Pennsilvanie, La Nouvelle Iarsey Orient et Occidentale." Amsterdam: Pierre Mortier, 1700. 20 x 31. Engraving. Original hand color. Wide margins. Light scattered spots. Overall, very good condition. Framed. [Note picture is through glass of frame.]

An attractive, large scale sea chart of the area around the Chesapeake Bay from Norfolk to New York. The son of French parents, Mortier was born in France but lived and worked in Amsterdam (1661-1722). A bookseller and publisher from about 1685, he entered into the map-trade in 1690 and soon became known as a publisher of some of the finest maps of the period. Though there is no definite attribution, this map was derived by Jaillot from the work of two Englishman, William Fisher and John Thornton. These two men published in 1689 what was to become for over one hundred years, a virtually unaltered sailing chart of the Chesapeake area. This map improved upon earlier maps showing greater detail of soundings, sand bars, and new place names, especially along the Virginia coast, that was not previously known. This map was, therefore, one of the most accurate of its time.

This map is a sea chart that was part of Mortier's Le Neptune Francois, and it has a western orientation, as this is the way one would see the land as one sailed towards it from Europe. The map shows the coastline from below Cape Henry to Staten Island, naming nearly every creek and inlet along these coasts. Interesting details of this map include the presence of sand bars and a "sunken marais [marsh]" off-shore of Staten Island (no Manhattan shown); the wealth of detail throughout the Chesapeake Bay; the amount of settlement along the James and York Rivers; and the recognition of Philadelphia as the only city of any substance. The rose compasses and rhumb lines along with the hand coloring, make the map very attractive. Unusually large for a sea chart, the map was obviously intended as something of a showpiece. Decoratively and historically a show-stopper. $8,500




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